Rule of Three

Within the documents in the chest is a curious thing called ‘The Rule of Three’. I have looked it up, and it seems to some from ‘A new and complete system of arithmetick: composed for the use of the Citizens of the United States by Nicholas Pike and Nathaniel Lord. It is available to read at https://play.google.com/books/reader?id=fxNRAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&output=reader&hl=en_GB&pg=GBS.PP1 This version was published on the 1st January 1816. It starts with the words:

Be it remembered, that on the seventh day of November, in the thirty-fourth year of the Independence of the United States of America, Thomas and Andrews of the said district, have deposited in this office, the title of a book, the right whereof they claim as proprietors, in the words following, to wit: “A new and complete system of Arithmetic’.

According to the book:

The Rule of Three

If more require more, or less require less, the question belongs to the Rule of Three Direct.
But if more require less, or less require more, it belongs to the Rule of Three Inverse.

Rule of Three

Rule of Three transcribed as it was written – spelling included!

Rule of Three

The Rule is called the Rule of Three, beause in it there are three numbers given, to find a fourth

Rule._1 Observer that of thee three given numbers two are suposed and on the other lies a demand.*

2 The number on which the demand lies, must always be the third term of the stating; of the other two, you will find one of the same kind, make it the first, consequently the remaining number will be the second or middle term, and of the same kind with what is required.

3 Reduce each number to its lowest denomination, and the first and third to the same name;

4 Consider whether more of less than the middle term be required; if more make the less extreme, the division; if less the greater exterm and the product of the other two terms the dividend: divide and the quotiend will be the answer in the same name as the second number.

On the reverse of ‘The Rule of Three’ is the costings for groceries ‘Bought of William Charlton’. What is odd about it is the first costing is from 1840 and the one underneath is from 1834. There is no date on the document to indicate when it was actually written. I wonder why he has a copy a book ‘for Citizens of the United States’? Maybe it was sent to him by his brother John. I also wonder if he understood what he was transcribing? It means nothing to me! He certainly seems to ave been an astute businessman, so must have had a head for figures.

Bill
Bill

bill

I looked up what bohea was and according to Wikipedia – Wuyi tea, formerly known by the trade name “Bohea” in English, is a category of black and oolong teas grown in the Wuyi Mountains of northern Fujian, China.

I have transcribed both documents and it can be downloaded here Rule of Three transcription.

William Charlton’s Complete Diary.

Esther Caswell’s (nee Charlton) father William, started his ‘black’ diary on February 10th 1876 and finishes on the 24th June 1884. This evening I finished scanning in the complete diary. One day I will transcribe it, but till then, here is the complete diary. It is a wonderful record of farming life in the late 1800’s.

http://familyhistoryhunter.co.uk/William_Charltons_Diary.pdf (9MB)

Page 3 of William Charlton’s Diary

Date
1876 Feb
10 At Shotley Bridge with Copland and at Medomsley Shop with the Horse Stormy
Fri 11 At Medomsley with Copland and the Tythe rent gatherer
S 12 At home stormy
S 13 At Coal Burns with Jame Mews and Green Sids
M 14 At Medomsley with Mr Lister from the station. Stormy.
Tu 15 At Medomsley and Leadgate got summons from the Countess of Derwentwater
Wed 16 At Shotley for the Sommons for Jackson and Leadbitter
17 At Medomsley and at Home
18 At Hedley  for my fathers x at Broom Hill
19 At the sale and at home Stage House
S 20 At Chopwell to see Bolam
M 21 At the Sale at Castledean
Tu 22 At Leadgate and Consett with M Copland and home
W 23 At Home Layon manure
Th 24 At Alendale for cement and at home.
F 25 At Home very Stormy
S 26 To Consett and Dickinson got stones out the field 26 Load
S 27 In home
M 28 At Home Leading stones very wet in the afternoon
T 29 At Home Leading stones very fine

Discovery!!

This is an image of the inside front cover and first page of the diary. It actually solves a little bit of a mystery! In the lower left hand corner there is the address of a John Charlton. This is actually William’s older brother, I knew that his family had moved to the US – but didn’t know where – until I received the diary. What a discovery!!

DSCN3328

Margaret Charlton (nee Hedley) d1907

One of the most numerous document types in the chest are Funeral Cards. Sometimes there are more than one copy of the same card, I can only assume that they were made by a member of the family and they had a few spares.

This first one is for Esther’s mother – Margaret Charlton (nee Hedley). Her Funeral card reads as follows.

Front: In Loving Memory

Inside left:

Her toils are o’er, her work is done,
And she is fully blest,
She fought the fight, the victory won,
And entered into rest.

Robert Jackson Printer, Consett

Inside right:

IN LOVING MEMORY
OF
MARGARET

Widow of the late William Charlton, of Station Hotel, Ebchester,

Who died Sept. 30th, 1907,

AGED 74 YEARS

Interment at Christ Church, Hamsterley,
Oct. 4th at 4 p.m.

Mary Ann and Esther Elizabeth Charlton

Esther Elizabeth’s father had been married before (To Elizabeth Braban) and had had a daughter also called Esther Elizabeth who sadly died aged only one year. This funeral card remembers both of the children from this first marriage.

In Affectionate Remembrance at
MARY ANN CHARLTON
Who died Jan. 2nd 1860, Aged 7 Years.

Esther Elizabeth Charlton
Who died Oct. 19, 1858, Aged 1 Year.
____________________________________
Ere sin could blight, or sorrow fade,
Death came with timely care,
These opening buds between conveyed,
And bade them blossom there.

Thomas Wilson d 1886

This is the funeral card of a Mr Thomas Wilson who died on the 7th May 1886. He resided at Broomhill, Ebchester.

I don’t know of any family connections to him but I did find him on the 1881 census:

Thomas Wilson, 1881 Census
Thomas Wilson, 1881 Census

This reveals that he was a farmer at Broomhill. This is interesting because William Charlton (Esther’s Grandfather) had been a farmer at Broomhill – as shown in the 1851 census:

William Charlton b1801 Census 1851
William Charlton b1801 Census 1851

Perhaps they rented the same piece of land from the Duke of Northumberland? Perhaps his name will come up when I investigate the diaries more….

Incidentally, according to the 1881 census – both Esther and her brother William were born at Broomhill – although the family were not living there in either 1871 or 1881

So there is cerainly a strong family connection with Broomhill!

Margaretta Caswell 1908-1914

This beautiful little girl is Margaretta Caswell, she is the daughter of Esther Elizabeth Charlton and Frederick Henderson Caswell. She was born on the 2nd June 1908, in Villa Real Hospital, Leadgate, Co. Durham. Which seems quite unusual as most of her siblings are believed to have been born at home. A large portrait used to hang in the home of Esther – Balfour House, Medomsley Road, Consett – but alas it is no longer in the possession of the family.

She died on the 17th January 1914, my mum believes that the cause was diptheria, but she isn’t sure so I am going to have to investigate. Diptheria is an upper respiratory tract infection which typically affects the nose and throat. Today all of my children hve been vaccinated to help prevent them from contracting this devastating disease, but back in Margaretta’s time there was no such prevention available.

She was buried on the 21st January, 1914 in Medomsley churchyard, Consett. Esther had seven children in total (including a set of twins). Margaretta was the only one not to survive to adulthood.

This was her funeral card:

Margaretta Caswell

Within the chest is a tiny band of black ribbon with the initial ‘M’ threaded onto it. I have discovered that it is most likely an Edwardian mourning wrist band. I imagine that Esther had it made after the death of her precious daughter, so that she would always be with her.

choker

Victorian Christmas Card

This is quite an unusual Christmas card. It is addresses to Madge – who ‘could’ be Margaret Charlton nee Hedley (Esther’s mother). From an Aunt Mary – Not entirely sure.

However, what makes it somewhat unique is that it is an envelope marked:

Safe Custody

Martins Bank Ltd 18 Oct 1951, Consett

Although I do suspect that the two were not paired together initially.

Inside the Christmas card is a lovely verse:

To Madge

A Happy Christmas

Gladness be with you
And sunshine o’er you
Love light the pathway
That stretches before you.

From Aunt Mary

Slipped into the card is a photograph of a grave and a tiny slip of newspaper which reads:

Our darling child has gone to sleep,
Her little head is free from pain,
And now for her we mourn and weep
On earth she’ll never wake again.

Ever remembered by her loving father and mother.

Unfortunately, I don’t really know anything about Aunt Mary or her lost daughter – but I shall endeavor to try to find out.

Will of William Charlton 1829 – 1896

Within ‘The Chest’ is the Probate of the Will of Esther’s Father – William Charlton. It is quite a large document and even has a seal. The paper feels quite waxy to the touch.

What I like most about the Will, is that unlike other Wills I have read over the years, this is the first one to divide the Estate equally between his two children: William and Esther. Esther was not only the youngest child, but she was (obviously) a girl. I think that a will dividing the Estate in this way would have been very unusual. Gender equality in 1896 – William Charlton was considerably ahead of his time!

Cover
cover

In the High Court of Justice Durham Probate Registry

Probate of the Will

Of

William Charlton deceased

Dated 28th January 1897
Extracted by J.W. Welford
Solicitor
Consett
Probate

Probate Letter

Probate The District Registry at Durham

In Her Majesty’s High Court of Justice

BE IT KNOWN, that at the date hereunder written, the last Will and Testament (a Copy whereof is hereunto annexed) of William Charlton of the Station Hotel Ebchester in the County of Durham Licensed Victualler deceased, who died on the ninth day of October 1896, at The Station Hotel aforesaid, and who at the time of his death had a fixed place of abode at The Station Hotel aforesaid within the District of the County of Durham was proved and registered in the District Probate Registry of Her Majesty’s High Court of Justice, at Durham and that Administration of the personal estate of the said deceased was granted by the aforesaid Court to Margaret Charlton, Widow the Relict of the said deceased and Charles David William Balleny, the Executors named in the said Will, they having been first sworn well and faithfully to administer the same.

And it is hereby certified that an Affidavit for Inland Revenue has been delivered, wherein it is shewn that the gross value of the personal estate of the said deceased within the United Kingdom (exclusive of what the said deceased may have been possessed of or entitled to as a Trustee and not beneficially) amounts to £580:18:6

And it is further certified that it appears by a Receipt signed by an Inland Revenue Officer on the said Affidavit that £45:2:2 for Estate Duty and interest on such duty has been paid, the duty being charged at the rate of £3 per cent.

Dated the twenty eighth day of January 1897

Joshua Earles

District Registrar

(side note: Extracted by J. W. Welford, Solr, Consett)

Will

William Charlton Will 1896

This is the last Will and Testament of me William Charlton of Ebchester in the County of Durham Farmer and Publican made this _________ day of ____________ one thousand eight hundred and ninety two. I appoint my wife Margaret Charlton and my friend Charles David William Balleny Exectutors and Trustees of this my Will I devise herein before named upon trust to pay my funeral and testamentary expenses and all my first debts and subject to the payment of the same to pay the net annual income of my estate to my wife for her life or so long as she shall continue my widow upon her death or second marriage whichever shall first happen I direct that my estate shall be divided in equal shares between my son William Hedley Charlton and my daughter Esther Elizabeth Charlton as tenants in common and not as joint tenants for their sole use and benefit I further direct that my Executors and Trustees shall not be responsible the one for the acts of the other I revoke all former and other Wills by me heretofore made In witness whereof I the said William Charlton have to this my Will set my hand _____ Signed by the said testator as his last Will in the presence of us present at the same time who in his presence and his request and in the presence of each other have hereunto subscribed our names as witnesses

William Charlton Sept 5th 1896

I Davidson

Archbold Burns